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CLOVER
CLOVER SEED

Alsike Clover Alsike Clover
A short-lived perennial plant, alsike clover lacks persistence so is treated agriculturally as a biennial. It is grown widely in the eastern and northern mid-western states, and in the Pacific Northwest. Similar in many ways to red clover, it matures a week to ten days earlier. It is especially well adapted to cool climates and wet soils, will tolerate flooding for considerable periods. It will also produce well on well-drained soils. Does well on soils to acidic for red clover, and will tolerate more alkalinity than most clovers; however, it responds to lime application. May be readily established on poorly drained or overflow land. Usually produces only one hay crop a year. Fits well in pasture mixes for wet lands. Alsike tends to lodge badly; a companion crop is desirable for hay production. Flowers are pink or white.
Seeding rate 6 to 8 lbs/acre.


Arrowleaf Clover
A winter annual legume successfully grown from eastern Texas to South Carolina and from Tennessee to the Gulf of Mexico, and in Western Oregon. Arrowleaf clover thrives on well drained sandy and clay soils, but is less tolerant of acid soils and low fertility than crimson clover. It does not tolerate alkaline soils or poor drainage. Arrowleaf clover has a long productive season, six to eight weeks longer in spring than crimson clover. Forage yield and quality are high, hard seed percentage is high, and there is a lower incidence of bloat. The thick, hollow stems are often purple. The flower head is initially white, later turning pink to purple. One cutting of excellent quality hay can be made in May if grazing is stopped by early April.
Seeding rate 5 to 8 lbs/acre.


Berseem Clover
Least winter hard of the cultivated clovers. Adaptation is limited to the warmest Gulf Coast and southwestern areas. Produces more winter forage than other legumes if not frozen out; however, it is not considered a major forage legume. Has an erect growth habit, hollow stems, narrow leaflets, and yellowish white flowers.
Seeding rate 15 to 20 lbs/acre.


Crimson Clover Crimson Clover
A winter annual, crimson clover is grown in the Gulf Coast region (except Florida) to Southern Ohio, and west of the Cascades. It is tolerant of medium soil acidity and will grow readily on both sandy and clay type soils. It is an important winter annual forage in the south, with growth continuing through the winter with the amount influenced by temperature. It thrives in mixture with grasses, provides excellent winter grazing, makes good hay. It is high in nutritive value when harvested for forage in the pre-bloom stage. Flower heads are long, crimson, and very showy. Crimson clover and annual ryegrass make an excellent cover crop mixture for improving the texture, organic matter and tilth of soil.
Seeding rate 20 to 30 lbs/acre.


Red Clover Medium Red Clover
Also known as double-cut red clover. Most widely adapted of the true clovers. This short-lived perennial is grown in Canada and most of the U.S. except the Great Plains states and the southwest. Mixes well with grass, used for hay, pasture, and soil improvement. Fertile, well-drained loams, silt loams, even faily heavy textured soils are preferred to light or gravelly soils. Red clover will grow on moderately acidic soil, but yields are maximized when pH is 6.0 or higher. An early flowering type, it can produce two or three hay crops per year. Fits well into three and four year rotations. Red clover is used extensively in pasture mixes and for renovating old pastures. Grass should be included in clover mixtures for grazing to reduce chances of bloat. Rotational rather than continuous grazing will help prolong the life of the stand. Most plants produce rose purple or magenta flowers in the seeding year.
Seeding rate 8 to 12 lbs/acre.

Rose Clover
Low growing winter annual legume adaped to a wide range of soils and most of the rangelands in California, including thin dry soils and mild climates. Not adapted to poorly drained soils, needs 10 inches annual rainfall, grows to 3,000 feet elevation. Summer grazing of dry forage shatters seed, animals trample seed into the soil. Palatable even when dry. Less productive than other annual legumes. Rose colored flower heads.
Seeding rate 15 to 20 lbs/acre.


Small Hop Clover
A palatable pasture plant which can produce medium quantity of forage for a short period in the spring, small hop clover is adapted to infertile and eroded soils of the southern United States. The yellow flowers are borne on small round heads which are similiar to flowers of hops. Not considered a valuable forage plant in the Pacific Northwest.
Seeding rate 6 to 8 lbs/acre.


Strawberry Clover Strawberry Clover
Similar to white dutch clover in growth habit. Spreads by above ground stolons, similar to strawberries. Adapted to wet saline and alkaline soils in the western U.S. Will tolerate flooding. It is principally a pasture plant that is somewhat drought resistant. It develops a good sod, and is very palatable.
Seeding rate 6 to 8 lbs/acre.


Subterranean Clover Subterranean Clover
Well adapted to warm moist winter and dry summers. Flourishes in Australia, used as a rangeland legume in Western Oregon and California. Suitable for foothills and nonirrigated pastures. A portion of the seed head buries in the soil. giving this clover its name and causes a difficult seed harvest. This clover is considered a reseeding winter annual plant. Needs 15 inches of rainfall, grows to 3000 feet elevation. Tolerant to acidic soils, requires well-drained soil. Used for permanent pastures.
Seeding rate 20 to 25 lbs/acre.


Sweet Clover Yellow Sweet Clover
Sweetclover thrives under a wide range of soil and climatic conditions. However, it will not tolerate acid soils. It is drought resistant, winter-hardy and productive throughout the Corn Belt south to the Gulf Coast. Quite alkali tolerant and even likes limestone soils. Because of its deep, heavy taproot and dense root system it opens subsoil and increase aeration, making it a valuable conservation tool. Root break down rapidly at maturity, adding organic matter to the soil. Sweet clover can be used for hay, silage, green manure or pasture. It is also one of the most valuable plants for honey production, often used solely for bee pasture.
Seeding rate 12 to 15 lbs/acre.

Sweet clover thrives under a wide range of soil and climatic conditions. It will not tolerate acid soils, however. Drought resistant, winter hardy and produtive throughout the Corn Belt south to the Gulf Coast. Quite alkali tolerant, likes limestone soils. Because of its deep, heavy taproot and dense root system it opens subsoil and increases aeration, making it a valuable conservation tool. Roots break down rapidly at maturity, adding organic matter to the soil.

The first season's growth of these large biennials consist of one central, many branched stem. The second year the crown buds start growth early, sending up many vigorous rapidly growing stems. Generally sweet clover is seeded for hay or silage in the northern tier of states, for 003366 manure or pasture in the Corn Belt, and for pasture in the south. In the Palouse region of eastern Washington and Idaho sweet clover / grass mixtures are used in rotation with cereal grains and peas to aid in halting soil deterioration.

It is one of the most valuable plants for honey production, often used solely for bee pasture.

Most unimporved strains contain large amounts of bound coumarin which gives new mown sweet clover its characteristic vanilla like aroma. When the plant tissues are chewed by animals, free coumarin is liberated, producing an unpalatable taste. Heating or spoilage of sweetclover hay or silage converts coumarin to dicoumarol, a toxic substance which reduces blood clotting time. Low coumarin varieties have been developed.


White Clover
White Clover (Dutch)
Designates a strain of white clover which that is perennial. Also is used in pasture mixtures. Usually matures between 4 to 8 inches.

Many homeowners include White Dutch clover in their lawn seed mixture because clover sprouts fast and grows so dependably that it's a valuable aid in getting a new lawn started. Nodules on the roots fix nitrogen from the air. Actually, up to 1/3 the nitrogen your lawn needs can be obtained from white dutch clover! Grows vigorously even in poor clay subsoil around new home construction. If you want all the benefits of a cover crop but don't want to till early or mow, clover is your best bet. Sow anytime, anywhere, at 1/4 lb. per 1,000 sq. ft. Just scatter the seeds, rake lightly, and keep the seed moist until it sprouts -- you're done! Withstands drought, grows well all over the U.S., even on barren soil where nothing else wants to grow. Winter hardy and it stays so low you can just till it under in spring.
Seeding rate 1/4 lb/1000 sq. ft or 6 to 8 lbs/acre.


Seeding rate 12 to 15 lbs/acre.

White Dutch Clover
Designates a strain of white clover which originated in Holland. Also used for pasture mixtures
Seeding rate 6 to 8 lbs/acre.

Ladino Clover
High in nutritive value and palatability make Ladino clover a popular choice in pasture mixtures. It is not deep rooted, and will not tolerate drought. It is two to four times as large as common white clover. Requires high soil phosphate level. Ryegrass and orchardgrass work well with ladino clover in mixtures.
Seeding rate 8 to 10 lbs/acre.

Small, intermediate and large white clovers evolved on relatively infertile, medium fertile and fertile soils respectively. White clovers are found from the Arctic Circle throughout the temperate regions of the globe, and in some subtropical regions such as the Gulf Coast of the U.S. and Queensland, Australia. As a pasture plant, white clover yields are greateset in mild humid climates, such as New Zealand, the Pacific Northwest, the eastern half of the U.S., northwest Europe and along river valleys and in irrigated pastures of the inter-mountain region. White clover, a long-lived stoloniferous perennial, is best adapted to well drained silt loam and clay soils with a pH range from 6.0 to 7.0 in humid and irrigated areas. With adequate soil moisture and fertility, it can be grown on sandy soils. It is not tolerant of saline or highly alkaline soils. The plant is shallow rooted, seldom goes deeper than 2 feet. White clover ranges from a perennial plant in the temperate zones to a winter annual in subtropical areas. Proper management of white clover-grass pastures includes grazing or clipping to prevent excessive growth and competition from the grasses. The larger white clover require rotational or controlled continuous grazing. Over consumption of white clover by ruminates may result in either bloat or reproductive problems. For pastures, it is almost always seeded with grass. It has been seeded along for swine and poultry pastures. The flower color is usually white, but may be slightly pinkish. Average germination time is 7 to 10 days.


New Zealand White Clover New Zealand White Clover
Highly palatable, often used in pasture mixures west of the Cascade range. As a pasture plant, white clover yields are greatest in mild humid climates. Best adapted to well-drained silt loam and clay soils with a pH range from 6.0 to 7.0 in humid and irrigated areas. With adequate soil moisture and fertility, it can be grown on sandy soils. It is not tolerant of saline or highly alkaline soils. The plant is shallow-rooted, seldom goes deeper than 2 feet. For pastures, white clover is almost always seeded with grass to prevent bloat and reproductive problems. The flower color is usually white, but may be slightly pinkish.
Seeding rate 6 to 8 lbs/acre.

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