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GRASS CHARACTERISTICS

GRASS CHARACTERISTICS

COMMON NAME: BOTANICAL NAME: APPROXIMATE NO.SEEDS/POUND

ALKALIGRASS Puccinellia nuttalliana 2,108,000 to 2,112,000

ALKALI SACATON Sporobolus airoides 1,755,000 to 1,762,000

BAHIAGRASS Paspalum notatum 153,000 to 166,000

BEACHGRASS

American Ammophila breviligulata (veqetative reproduction)

European Ammophila arenaria 114,000 (veq, reprod.)

BENTGRASS

Colonial Agrostis tenuis 8,000,000 to 8,500,000

Creeping Agrostis palustris 7,800,000 to 8,000,000

Redtop Agrostis alba 4,900,000 to 5,100,000

BERMUDAGRASS Cynodon dactylon 1,785,000 to 1,790,000

BLUE PANICGRASS Panicum antidotale 657,000 to 658,500

BLUEGRASS

Annual Poa annua 1,100,000 to 1,200,000

Big Poa ampla 880,000 to 920,000

Bulbous Poa bulbosa 460,000 to 470,000

Canada Poa compressa 2,300,000 to 2,500,000

Canby Poa canbyi

Kentucky Poa pratensis 1,800,000 to 2,200,000

Nevada Poa nevadensis 1,082,000 to 1,984,00Q

Sandberg Poa secunda 925,000 to 927,000

Shady Poa trivialis 2,400,000 to 2,500,000

BLUESTEM

Big bluestem Andropogon gerardi 164,000 to 165,000

Little bluestem Andropogon scoparius 260,000 to 261,000

Sand bluestem Andropogon halli 113,000 to 113,500

BROMEGRASS

Meadow Bromus erectus

(Bromus bilbersteinii) 70,000 to 72,000

Mountain Bromus marginatus 70,000 to 80,000

Rescue grass Bromus catharticus 57,000 to 62,000

Smooth Bromus inermis 125,000 to 140,000

Chess Bromus secalinus 70,000 to 72,000

Cheatgrass Bromus tectorum 200,000 to 210,000

BUFFALOGRASS Buchloe dactyloides 55,500 to 56,000

CANARYGRASS

Canarygrass Phalaris canariensis 68,000 to 70,000

Reed canarygrass Phalaris arundinacea 500,000 to 540,000

Hardinggrass Phalaris aquatica 350,000 to 360,000

(P. tiberosa var. stenoptera}

CARPETGRASS Axonopus affinus 1,222,000 to 1,225,000

CENTIPEDEGRASS Eremochloa ophiuroides 408,000 to 409,000

CRABGRASS Digitaria sanguinalis 825,000 to 827,000

DALLISGRASS Paspalum dilatatum 220,000 to 220,500

DROP SEED

Giant dropseed Sporobolus giganteus 1,723,000 to 1,727.000

Sand dropseed Sporobolus cryptandrus 5,298,000 to 5,310,000

Tall dropseed Sporobolus asper 503,000 to 504,000

GRAMA

Blue grama Bouteloua gracilis 825,000 to 827,000

Sideoats grama Bouteloua curtipendula 191,000 to 191,500

FESCUE

Chewings Festuca rubra comutata 500,000 to 615,000

Creeping Festuca rubra stolonifera 500,000 to 615,000

Hard Festuca longifolia 600,000 to 680,000

(F. ovina var. duriuscula}

Idaho Festuca idahoensis

Meadow Festuca elatior 220,000 to 240,000

Rattail Festuca myuros 400,000 to 420,000

Sheep Festuca ovina 670,000 to 690,000

Tall Festuca arundinacea 220,000 to 230,000

FOXTAIL

Creeping Alopecurus arundinaceus 540,000 to 600,000

Meadow Alopecurus pratensis 540,000 to 600,000

INDIAN RICEGRASS Oryzopsis hymenoides 141,000 to 141,300

JOHNSONGRASS Sorghum halepense 118,000 to 118,300

LOVEGRASS

Boer lovegrass Eragrostis chloromelas 2,922,000 to 2,928,000

Lehmann lovegrass Eragrostis lehmanniana 4,245,000 to 2,254,000

Sand lovegrass Eragrostis trichodes 1,300,000 to 1,303,000

Weeping lovegrass Eragrostis curvula 1,463,000 to 1,466,000

NAPIERGRASS Pennisetum purpureum 1,403,000 (veg. reprod.)

NATALGRASS Tricholaena rosea 501,000 to 502,000

NEEDLE-AND-THREAD Stipa comata 115,000 to 115,300

NEEDLEGRASS

003366 needlegrass Stipa viridula 181,000 to 181,400

ORCHARDGRASS Dactylis glomerata 420,000 to 590,000

RYEGRASS

Annual Lolium multiflorum 200,000 to 230,000

Hybrid Lolium hybridum 210,000 to 250,000

Perennial Lolium perenne 210,000 to 250,000

SACATON Sporobolus wrightii 1,965,000 to 1,969,000

ST. AUGUSTINEGRASS Stenatophorum secundatum (vegetative reproduction)

SUDANGRASS Sorghum sudanense 54,000 to 56,000

SWITCHGRASS Panicum virqatum 389,000 to 390,000

OATGRASS Arrhenatherum elatius 140,000 to 190,000

TIMOTHY Phleum pratense 1,200,000 to 1,300,000

VASEYGRASS Paspalum urvillei 440,000 to 441,000

VELVETGRASS Holcus lanatus 1,524,000 to 1,527,500

WHEATGRASS

Bearded Agropyron subsecundum 115,000 to 120,000

Beardless Agropyron inerme 135,000 to 150,000

Bluebunch Agropyron spicatum 90,000 to 100,000

Crested Agropyron desertorum 175,000 to 200,000

Fairway Agropyron cristatum 175,000 to 190,000

Intermediate Agropyron intermedium 83,000 to 95,000

Pubescent Agropyron tricophorum 80,000 to 100,000

Siberian Agropyron sibiricum 170,000 to l80,000

Slender Agropyron trachycaulum 150,000 to 160,000

Streambank Agropyron riparium 156,000 to 165,000

Tall Agropyron elongatum 75,000 t 79,000

Thickspike Agropyron dasystachyum 150,000 to 160,000

Western Agropyron smithii 105,000 to 110,000

WILDRYE

Blue Elymus glaucus 135,000 to 140,000

Canada Elymus canadensis 115,000 to 118,000

Giant Elymus condensatus 165,000 to 170,000

Mammoth/Siberian Elymus giganteus 100,000 to 105,000

Russian Elymus junceus 175,000 to 180,000

ZOYSIA Zoysia japonica 1,300,000 (veg. reprod.)

LEGUMES

ALFALFA Medicago sativa 200,000 to 220,000

ALYCECLOVER Alysicarpus vaginalis 300,000 to 300,600

CICER MILKVETCH Astragalus cicer 130,000 to 130,300

CLOVER

Alsike Trifolium hybridum 680,000 to 700,000

Arrowleaf Trifolium vesiculosum 350,000 to 400,000

Berseem Trifolium alexandrinum 195,000 to 200,000

Crimson Trifolium incarnatum 145,000 to 150,000

Ladino Trifolium repens 780,000 to 800,000

Red Trifolium pratense 270,000 to 280,000

Rose Trifolium hirtum 150,000 to 160,000

Small hop Trifolium dubium 950,000 to 1,000,000

Strawberry Trifolium fragiferum 290,000 to 300,000

Subterranean Trifolium subterraneum 62,000 to 67,000

White Trifolium repens 780,000 to 800,000

White Sweet Melilotus alba 255,000 to 260,000

Yellow Sweet Melilotus officinalis 255,000 to 260,000

GUAR Cyamopsis tetragonoloba 20,000

KUDZU Kudzu lobata 37,000 to 40,000

LESPEDEZA

Korean Lespedeza Lespedeza stipulacea 225,000 to 225,500

Sericea lespedeza Lespedeza cuneata 350,000 to 350,800

Striate lespedeza Lespedeza striata 190,000 to 190,400

LUPINE

Blue lupine Lupinus augustifolias 2,500

White lupine Lupinus albus 1,500

Yellow lupine Lupinus luteus 4,000

PEAS

Austrian Pisum sativum var. arvense 2,900 to 3,000

Canadian Pisum sativum var. arvense 2,900 to 3,000

TREFOILS

Big Trefoil Lotus pedunculatus 980,000 to 1,000,000

(Lotus major) (Lotus uliginosus)

Broadleaf Birdsfoot Lotus corniculatus 370,000 to 380,000

Narrowleaf Birdsfoot Lotus tenuis 400,000 to 410,000

VETCH

Common Vicia sativa 7,000 to 7,200

Hairy Vicia villosa 110,000 to 120,000

Horsebean Vicia faba var. equina 3,000 to 3,100

Hungarian Vicia pannonica 10,000 to 10,500

Purple Vicia benghalensis 10,000 to 10,500

(Vicia atropurpurea}

Winter Vicia dasycarpa 10,000 to 10,500

(Woolypod}

Crownvetch Coronilla varia 110,000 to 120,000

MISCELLANEOUS:

BARLEY Hordeum vulgare 13,500 to 15,000

BEETS Beta vulgaris 24,000 to 25,000

BURNET Sanguisorba minor

BUCKWHEAT Fagopyrum esculentum 19,000 to 20,000

CORN Zea mays 1,000 to 1,100

COWPEA Vigna sinensis 3,000 to 3,100

FLAX Linum usitatissimum 80,000 to 81,000

FLATPEA Lathyrus sylvestris 8,000

GARBANZO Cicer arietinum 1,000

MILLET

Foxtail Setaria italica 210,000 to 220,000

Japanese Echinochloa crusgalli

var. frumentacea 150,000 to 155,000

Proso (Hog} Panicum miliaceum 80,000 to 82.000

OATS Avena sativa 12,500 to 15,000

RAPE Brassica napus 180,000 to 190,000

RICE Oryza sativa 28,000 to 30,000

RYE Secale cereale 17,000 to 18,000

SAFFLOWER Carthamus tinctorius 13,100 to 13,200

SAINFOIN Onobrychis viciifolia 29,500 to 30,500

SORGHUM Sorghum vulqare 27,500 to 28,500

WHEAT Triticum sativum 15,000 to 15,200

TABLE 2.

SPECIES TOLERANCE TO VARIOUS CONDITIONS:
Tolerant to ACID SOILS:

Colonial Bentgrass

Creeping Bentgrass

Canada Bluegrass

Alsike Clover

Crimson Clover

Hard Fescue

Red Fescue

Sheep Fescue

Tall Fescue

Creeping Foxtail

Meadow Foxtail

Red Top

Annual Ryegrass

Perennial Ryegrass

Bermudagrass

Switchgrass

Weeping Lovegrass

Tolerant to HIGH ALTITUDES:

Canada Bluegrass

Smooth Brome

Alsike Clover

Creeping Red Fescue

Meadow Foxtail

Orchardgrass

Timothy

Crested Wheatgrass

Intermediate Wheatgrass

Streambank Wheatgrass

Tall Wheatgrass

Thickspike Wheatgrass

pH

4.5-5.0 4.5-5.0 5.5

?

(mild)

4.5-8.0

4.5

4.0-4.5 4.5-8.0

4.0-4.5

4.0-4.5 4.0-4.5

(mod.)

(mod.)

Tolerant to ALKALI SOILS:

Tall Fescue

Hard Fescue

Perennial Ryegrass

Annual Ryegrass

Big Trefoil

Birdsfoot Trefoil

Strawberry Clover

Sweet Clover

Alkali Sacaton

Alkaligrass

Bermudagrass

Tolerant to SALINE SOILS:

Foxtail Barley Tall Fescue

Crested wheatgrass Slender Wheatgrass

Streambank Wheatgrass

Tall Wheatqrass

Western wheatgrass

Russian Wildrye

Tolerance to WETLANDS:

Alsike Clover

Meadow Foxtail

Red Top Reed Canarygrass

Annual Ryegrass

Perennial Ryegrass

Timothy

Big Trefoil

Birdsfoot Trefoil

pH

8.0-8.5

8.0

8.0-8.5

(Mild)

(Mild)

(very)

8.0-8.5

(very)

8.0-8.5

TABLE 3

MINIMUM ANNUAL PRECIPITATION REQUIRED

GRASSES: INCHES: LEGUMES INCHES:

Big Bluegrass 10 Alfalfa 15-18

Canby Bluegrass 10

Canada Bluegrass 18 Alsike Clover 35

Kentucky Bluegrass 18 Ladino Clover 35

Red Clover 35

Meadow Brome 16 Rose Clover 15-20

Mountain Brome 16 Strawberry Clover 15-18

Smooth Brome 12-18 White Clover 35

Hard Fescue 14-16 White Sweetclover 10-12

Red Fescue 18 Yellow Sweetclover 10-12

Sheep Fescue 8-12

Tall Fescue 16-20 Sainfoin 15-18

Creeping Foxtail 25 Birdsfoot Trefoil 18-24

Meadow Foxtail 25

Hairy Vetch 18-20

Orchardgrass 18 Woolypod Vetch 18-20

Redtop 20

Reed Canarygrass 16 Crownvetch 20-25

Indian Ricegrass 9

Cicer Milkvetch 12-18

Annual Ryegrass 10

Perennial Ryegrass 12 OTHER GRASSES:

Timothy 16 Alkaligrass 15

Alkali Sacaton 6

Beardless Wheatgrass 8 Big Bluestem 18

Bluebunch Wheatgrass 8-14 Little Bluestem 14

Crested Wheatgrass, Fairway 8-10 Sand Bluestem 14

Crested Wheatgrass, Standard 10-20 Buffalograss 12

Intermediate Wheatgrass 14 Giant Bermudagrass 10

Pubescent Wheatgrass 12-14

Siberian Wheatgrass 6-10 Giant Dropseed 12

Slender Wheatgrass 10-14 Sand Dropseed 10

Streambank Wheatgrass 8 Blue Grama 12-14

Tall Wheatgrass 8

Thickspike Wheatgrass 8 Plains Lovegrass 14

Western Wheatgrass 10 Sand Lovegrass 12

Weeping Lovegrass 16

Canada Wildrye 12 Needle and Thread 10

Russian Wildrye 12 Blue Panic Grass 11

Switchgrass 18-20

GRASS SEED CHARACTERISTICS:

Species Annual Ryegrass Perennial Ryegrass Tall Fescue Orchardgrass Fine Fescue Kentucky Bluegrass Bentgrass
Seeds per lb Pasture Type

172,000

Turf Type

172,000

Pasture Type

210,000

Turf Type

280,000

Pasture Type

225,000

Turf Type

225,000

429,000 Chewings

385,000

Creeping

320,000

1,300,000 Creeping

7,000,000

Colonial

6,000,000

Growth Habit Bunch Type Bunch Type Bunch Type Bunch Type Chewings

Bunch Type

Creeping

Tillers

Rhizomes Creeping

Stolons

Colonial

rhizomes

Establishment Rate Very Fast Very Fast Medium Medium Medium Slow Medium
Leaf growth rate Very Fast Very Fast Medium Medium Slow to Medium Slow to Medium Medium to Fast
Competes with weeds and other grasses High High Low to Medium Low to Medium Chewings

Medium

Creeping

Low to Medium

Medium Creeping

High

Colonial

Medium to High

Thatch formation Low Low Low to Medium N/A Chewings

High

Creeping

Medium

Medium to High Creeping

High

Colonial

Medium

Shade tolerance Fair to Good Good Very Good Good Very Good Fair to Good Fair
Drought tolerance Good Very Good Very Good Medium Good Good Fair
Cold tolerance Good Good Very Good Good Very Good Very Good Excellent
Traffic and wear tolerance Very Good Excellent Very Good Good Fair Good Good
Seeding rate (lb/acre) Pasture

25-35

Turf

450-600

Pasture

25-35

Turf

250-400

Pasture

25-35

Turf

250-400

10-15 Chewings

200-300

Creeping

200-300

60-100 Creeping

30-50

Colonial

80-130

TURF GRASS SELECTION:

There are many different types of turf grasses on the market. Some are very similar while other are very different.

Three basic questions to ask when deciding which type is right for you are:

  • What is the environment like?
  • What is the function of the turf? IE lawn, sports field, etc.
  • What maintenance is involved? Some turfgrass require high maintenance due to lack of disease, insect, drought resistance, etc.

TURF GRASS SELECTION TABLES:

FERTILITY REQUIREMENTS

WARM SEASON

COOL SEASON

Buffalo Low Bentgrass High
Centipede Low Bluegrass Medium
Common Bermuda Medium - High Fine Fescue Low
Hybrid Bermuda High Ryegrass Medium
St Augustine Medium Tall Fescue Low - Medium
Tall Fescue Medium
Zoysia Low - Medium

LEAF TEXTURE

WARM SEASON

COOL SEASON

Buffalo Fine Bentgrass Fine
Centipede Medium - Coarse Bluegrass Medium
Common Bermuda Medium Fine Fescue Fine
Hybrid Bermuda Fine Ryegrass Medium
St Augustine Coarse Tall Fescue Medium
Tall Fescue Medium
Zoysia Fine - Medium

SHADE TOLERANCE

WARM SEASON

COOL SEASON

Buffalo Low Bentgrass Medium
Centipede Medium - High Bluegrass Low - Medium
Common Bermuda Low Fine Fescue High
Hybrid Bermuda Low - Medium Ryegrass Low - Medium
St Augustine High Tall Fescue Medium
Tall Fescue High
Zoysia Medium - High

WEAR RESISTANCE

WARM SEASON

COOL SEASON

Buffalo Medium - High Bentgrass Low
Centipede Low Bluegrass Medium
Common Bermuda High Fine Fescue Medium
Hybrid Bermuda Medium - High Ryegrass High
St Augustine Low Tall Fescue Medium - High
Tall Fescue Medium
Zoysia High

MOWING HEIGHT

WARM SEASON

COOL SEASON

Buffalo High Bentgrass Low
Centipede Medium - High Bluegrass Medium
Common Bermuda Medium Fine Fescue Medium
Hybrid Bermuda Low Ryegrass Medium
St Augustine High Tall Fescue Medium
Tall Fescue High
Zoysia Medium

COLD TOLERANCE

WARM SEASON

COOL SEASON

Buffalo High Bentgrass Low
Centipede Medium - High Bluegrass Medium
Common Bermuda Medium Fine Fescue Medium - High
Hybrid Bermuda Low - Medium Ryegrass Medium
St Augustine Low Tall Fescue High
Tall Fescue High
Zoysia High

HEAT TOLERANCE

WARM SEASON

COOL SEASON

Buffalo High Bentgrass High
Centipede High Bluegrass Medium
Common Bermuda High Fine Fescue Low - Medium
Hybrid Bermuda High Ryegrass Low - Medium
St Augustine High Tall Fescue High
Tall Fescue Medium
Zoysia High

DROUGHT TOLERANCE

WARM SEASON

COOL SEASON

Buffalo High Bentgrass Low
Centipede Low - Medium Bluegrass Medium
Common Bermuda Medium - High Fine Fescue High
Hybrid Bermuda Low - Medium Ryegrass Low - Medium
St Augustine Medium Tall Fescue High
Tall Fescue Low
Zoysia Medium - High

THATCHING TENDENCY

WARM SEASON

COOL SEASON

Buffalo Low Bentgrass High
Centipede Medium Bluegrass Low - Medium
Common Bermuda Low Fine Fescue Low - Medium
Hybrid Bermuda High Ryegrass Low
St Augustine Medium - High Tall Fescue Low
Tall Fescue Low
Zoysia Medium - High

TOLERANCE TO ACID SOILS

WARM SEASON

COOL SEASON

Buffalo Low Bentgrass Medium - High
Centipede High Bluegrass Medium
Common Bermuda Medium Fine Fescue Medium - High
Hybrid Bermuda Medium Ryegrass Medium
St Augustine Low Tall Fescue High
Tall Fescue High
Zoysia Low - Medium

SALINITY TENDENCY

WARM SEASON

COOL SEASON

Buffalo High Bentgrass High
Centipede Low - Medium Bluegrass Medium
Common Bermuda High Fine Fescue Medium
Hybrid Bermuda High Ryegrass Medium - High
St Augustine High Tall Fescue High
Tall Fescue High
Zoysia High

Questions? Contact info@baileyseed.com

 
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